By Ojeda J.L., Cristobal J.A.

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9 Mixed numbers. Fractions and Mixed Numbers So far we have only looked at the representation of whole numbers or integers and the form of representation that we have been considering is generally known as fixed point. Although we will only touch on this here, fixed point representation can be used for fractions and mixed numbers as well simply by considering the binary point to be at some position other than at the extreme right-hand side of the digit sequence. So, for example, in Fig. 9 the binary point is considered to be in between the two bytes that are to be taken together as a single number.

By “character” we mean a single symbol that is to be printed on a printer or displayed on a visual display unit and which includes within the set of all characters, the letters of the alphabet, both upper and lower case, and the digits 0 to 9. In most binary representations, a single character is represented by the data pattern in a single byte. Since a byte can hold 256 different patterns (recall that the range of numbers in a byte is 0 to 255) then up to 256 different characters can be defined.

File Types and Signatures File types may be used to signify the types of record that are held in the file. This is useful to the analyst as a starting point for deducing the appropriate set of interpretative rules for the file. Some software packages might use this file type to confirm initially that a suitable file is being processed, but this is never a sufficient test and further checks are invariably made of the actual data. There is no guarantee that any particular system will conform to the file typing practice and, indeed, a conscious attempt to deceive subsequent analysis may have been made by deliberately misusing a particular known file type.