By Rachel Jones (auth.)
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Extra info for Beyond the Spanish State: Central Government, Domestic Actors and the EU
The pressure exerted by such arguments was limited until the attempted coup by a minority in the Spanish armed forces on 23 February 1981 provided a clear illustration of the fragility of the regime. The coup was followed by a Commission declaration on 24 February which firmly emphasized Spain’s place in the EC, and a European Parliament resolution on 13 March stressing EC Accession Negotiations 29 the Community’s responsibility and urging an acceleration of the negotiations. France was the key opponent of enlargement throughout the negotiations, although its fears were often shared by other member states such as Italy and Germany.
A key bargaining tool used by the Spanish delegation was to accuse EC negotiators of placing excessive demands on its relatively fragile democracy. It constantly reminded the EC of the dangers of overestimating the stability of the Spanish democratic framework, and of relying on an unquestioning internal consensus whatever the speed of negotiation or the conditions demanded. The pressure exerted by such arguments was limited until the attempted coup by a minority in the Spanish armed forces on 23 February 1981 provided a clear illustration of the fragility of the regime.
A study by Beate Kohler-Koch (1982) of the alignment of political forces in the post-Franco era was written at too early a stage in the negotiations to form a full evaluation of the domestic arena. Berta Álvarez-Miranda Navarro (1995) provides an analytical insight into the rationale behind the Spanish cross-party consensus, but in general, studies refer to the overall pro-European position in Spanish domestic society without evaluating its origins or significance. Although González referred in May 1983 to trade unions and employers as the ‘true negotiating forces’ through which the government could achieve social and economic reform (Giner and Sevilla, 1984, p.
Beyond the Spanish State: Central Government, Domestic Actors and the EU by Rachel Jones (auth.)