By O. Nieuwenhuizen
The analysis and remedy of kids struggling with childish encephalopathy is a part of day-by-day childneurological perform. over the last years, a large amount of wisdom has been accumul ated on motor and psychological handicaps, orthopaedic corrections, rehabilitation, measurements, and so forth. much less recognition has, although, been paid to the perceptual deficits in young children struggling with childish encephalopathy, e.g. visible and listening to loss. it's most probably that such deficits could have a unfavourable impression on improvement. As those young children are usually additionally mentally retarded, perceptual deficits should be tricky to diagnose. increasing the to be had wisdom on those deficits may possibly facilitate their (early) prognosis. evaluation of prognosis allows adaption of developmental stimulation that can final give a contribution to the next developmental point. This examine bargains with the visible difficulties of youngsters being affected by childish encephalopathy. specifically, a learn has been made up of visible impairment as a result of disorder of the primary visible process (from optic chiasm to striate cortex). The childneurological points of this handicap have been investigated intimately in coopera tion with Prof. Dr. J. Willemse (Department of Childneurology, collage health center Utrecht, The Netherlands), leading to an identifiable scientific photo. the applying of neuro-imaging concepts (computer tomography, magazine netic resonance imaging) allows the overview of attribute morphological abnormalities of the critical visible approach.
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Additional info for Cerebral Visual Disturbance in Infantile Encephalopathy
In the present study, the investigation of the OKN has been limited to the HORIZONTAL OKN, the patterns only being moved in a horizontal direction. Typically, a pattern of saw-tooth, or jerk nystagmus is developed, in which slow following eye movements in the direction of the pattern (the slow phase) are interrupted by fast saccades in the opposite direction (the fast component). Recording the eye movements induced by OKN on a graph is called optokinetic nystagmography. If one plots the slow and fast components of the OKN, a saw-tooth-shaped curve is produced (see Fig.
One can use the following questions as a starting point to investigate OKN in these children: a) In the case of binocular testing: a1: is a spontaneous binocular nystagmus found? a2: can a binocular OKN be elicited? a3: if the binocular OKN can be elicited, is it asymmetric or symmetric? a4: is the sensitivity of the binocular OKN reduced with higher speeds of the visual stimulus? b) In the case of monocular testing: b1: is a latent nystagmus found? b2: can a monocular OKN be elicited? b3: if the monocular OKN can be elicited, is it asymmetric or symmetric?
Having discussed the pathophysiological backgrounds behind the slow and fast phases of the OKN, a literature survey of OKN will now be presented. On studying the literature on OKN research, Ter Braak's work has undoubtedly made an important contribution. In 1936, Ter Braak published his study 'Untersuchungen ueber optokinetischen Nystagmus' ('Investigations on optokinetic nystagmus'). He differentiated 2 types of OKN: 1) 'Stare nystagmus', elicited by 'die Bewegung der ganzen optischen Umwelt' ('the movement of the entire optic environment').
Cerebral Visual Disturbance in Infantile Encephalopathy by O. Nieuwenhuizen