By B. Said, B. Drasar (auth.), Professor B. S. Drasar, Dr B. D. Forrest (eds.)
Only lately has it been published that V. cholerae is a regular inhabitant of esturine and riverine waters. which means whether the ailment could be eradicated from human inhabitants by means of vaccines and so on. the vibrio will proceed to outlive independently within the setting. it's most probably that the surroundings is the resource of epidemic lines. this is often the 1st publication to target the implication of those discoveries.
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Extra resources for Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae
Ouring this period the disease had therefore traversed territory almost 100 in longitude from Nagasaki (147°E) to the Syrian coast (52°E), and more than 67 in latitude - from Bourbon (now Reunion) (21°S) to Astrakhan (46 21'N). Although the epidemic did not cross into Europe it came extremely close to doing so (Scott, 1939)! The observed route(s) of extension along rivers - was ascribed by contemporary observers to commerce. Removal of inhabitants to a 'new' site frequently ended an outbreak; therefore, the disease was believed not to be contagious and in consequence quarantine measures were regarded as being useless (Scott, 1939).
The mining population of this country had suffered more from cholera than any other; there were no privies in the mines, and as the workmen usually stayed down for eight hours at a time, they took food with them, which they ate with unwashed hands; hence, in the event of one workman getting the cholera, the others were very liable to contract the disease, and take it to their families. One important medium of the conveyance of the cholera poison from one patient to another was the drinking water, when it became contaminated by their evacuations, either by permeating the ground and getting into wells, or by their being conveyed by sewers into a river.
But, how had the pump-water become dangerous (Howell and Ford, 1985)? On 3 April 1855, Whitehead - after perusal of the Registrar's returns (of deaths) - was able to associate the outbreak with the 'index case' on 2 September at 40 Broad Street (a 5-month-old girl), a house next to the Broad Street pump. The house's 'privy', and cesspool, stood a mere 3 feet away from the pump. Examination showed the drain to leak like a sieve; furthermore, the cesspool was very badly constructed. Another case of cholera - a policeman, who also died - was also traced to number 40; on 8 September, the father of the 'index case' contracted the disease - after Snow had been successful in getting the pump handle removed.
Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae by B. Said, B. Drasar (auth.), Professor B. S. Drasar, Dr B. D. Forrest (eds.)