By David Betz
This ebook examines how civil-military relatives were reworked in Russia, Poland, Hungary and Ukraine because the cave in of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact in 1991. It exhibits how those international locations have labored to reform their out of date defense force, and convey them into line with the recent fiscal and strategic realities of the post-Cold warfare international, with new bureaucratic constructions during which civilians play the main policy-making roles, and with bolstered democratic political associations that have the proper to supervise the defense force.
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Extra resources for Civil-Military Relations in Russia and Eastern Europe (Routledgecurzon Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series, 2)
24 A ﬁnal problem was the lack of consensus on the direction of reform between military and civilian officials which was undermined by the faulty institutional design of the defence establishment, the power-grabbing tactics of President Walesa, and the determined independence of the chief of general staff, General Wilecki. The separation of the general staff and the ministry of defence had effectively preserved the monopoly of the military on military issues. This system allowed an anti-democratic relationship to develop between the president and the chief of general staff that excluded the civilian minister of defence from a major decision-making role.
However, the Central European states had made more progress than those in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet-type defence establishment To appreciate the difficulties of reform in the former Soviet bloc countries it is useful to understand ﬁrst how defence policy was made under the old system as well as the type of armed forces that obtained in the Soviet-bloc. Governance in the Soviet Union was based on a dual Communist Party-government structure, consisting of two parallel hierarchies linked in a multiplicity of institutions.
What emerged was a conﬂict of military vs civilian psychology: the military mind wants to be doing something, to be active, to make plans and to put them into action. But in Hungary, civilians did not know what to do. They had so many problems that giving guidance to the military was not a priority. So, the military did things for itself without seriously checking in with political or societal opinions. Some units were relocated (which cost a lot of money) only to be cut the next year. 62 The politicians lacked experience in the defence sphere and failed to recognise their responsibilities.
Civil-Military Relations in Russia and Eastern Europe (Routledgecurzon Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series, 2) by David Betz