By M. Hirono
Because the early Nineties, China has witnessed an inflow of overseas NGOs, lots of that have Christianity as their origin. The presence of foreign Christian corporations in China, besides the fact that, isn't really new. Christian missionaries went to China within the age of imperialism. Historians argue the paintings of missionaries was once inextricably associated with the belief of a ‘civilizing mission’. This e-book severely assesses the assumption of a Christian ‘civilizing project’ through the years, and explores the relevance of the assumption to the modern context. through interpreting the non-Han people’s conception of overseas Christian corporations, this booklet advocates the significance of engagement via in-depth discussion among foreign Christian NGOs and ethnic groups.
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Extra info for Civilizing Missions: International Religious Agencies in China (Culture and Religion in International Relations)
As the term jiaohua transformed into the more recent wenming, it is clear that the Chinese notion of civilization had shifted toward that of “Western civilization,” with emphasis on Western culture and technology. In other words, the interpretation of what it meant to be “civilized” also changed from possessing an understanding of the ritual, customs, and laws of science to possessing an understanding of Western culture and technology. To understand this shift, it is helpful to think of civilization as a process in which a self-proclaimed identity is constructed through social interaction.
How terrible! ” Instead of the term wenming, he “Civilizing Missions” and Ethnic Communities 25 uses jiaohua (transformed by education) to explain civilization. An English-Chinese Dictionary published in 1866 also shows that jiaohua was in common use (Lobscheid 1866). 1 is a chart adapted from the dictionary, with an additional literal English translation of each Chinese character. 1 Civilization and Jiaohua English Chinese Civilization, the act of civilizing jiaohua zhe kaihua zhe liwen zhe The state of being civilized tongwuli zhe guanli zhe Civilize, to reclaim from a savage state jiaohua jiaoyi liyi huayi liyi Civilize him jiaohua ju huazhi Civilized, reclaim from savage life and manners jiaohua guo shu jiaohua zhe Civilizer, one who civilizes Translation of Chinese words person who is transformed by education person who develops culture person who knows ritual and customs person who is familiar with laws of science engineer; person who understands the laws of science transformed by education teach with ritual principles transform with ritual principles transform him by education transform has been transformed by education cooked; transformed by culture person who transforms by education kaihua zhe person who develops culture qihua zhe person who enlightens person who educates in ritual principles person who transforms people jiaoli yizhe huaren zhe Source: Adapted from Lobscheid (1866); modified by author.
Particularly during the Cultural Revolution (1966– 1976), the party attempted to destroy the ideology and traditions of ethnic communities. In essence, the communities were incorporated into the state. The commune, rather than community, was the basic unit of administration, production, and social relations until the decollectivization of agriculture in the 1970s. Since the late 1980s, administrative and natural villages have been the basic units. In this context, whether an ethnic community, within which its constituent members share their identity, exists, and if so, how, become critical areas of inquiry.
Civilizing Missions: International Religious Agencies in China (Culture and Religion in International Relations) by M. Hirono