By Filomeno V. Aguilar Jr.
This article illuminates the oral traditions of the Philippines and the convergence of capitalism and the indigenous spirit international. the writer examines the social family members, cultural meanings and political struggles surrounding the increase of sugar haciendas on Negros throughout the past due Spanish colonial interval, and their next transformation below the aegis of the yank colonial kingdom. Drawing on oral historical past, interviews and a wide range of resources culled from information in Spain, the USA, the uk and the Philippines, the writer reconstructs the emergence of a sugar-planter classification and its strategic maneuvers to achieve hegemony. The booklet portrays neighborhood actors taking an lively function in shaping the exterior forces that impinge on their lives. It examines hacienda lifestyles from the indigenous viewpoint of magic and spirit ideals, reinterpreting a number of serious stages of Philippine background within the technique. by means of examining mythic stories as bearers of ancient attention, the writer explores the complicated interactions among neighborhood tradition, worldwide interventions, and capitalist industry forces.
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Additional resources for Clash of Spirits: The History of Power and Sugar Planter Hegemony on a Visayan Island
Notwithstanding formal theology, unofﬁcial but tolerated superstitions blended superbly with their ofﬁcial variants, producing the peculiar Catholicism the friar missionaries propagated in the Philippines. The degenerate state of the Spanish church was aggravated by the process of recruitment to the Catholic priesthood. With the onset of economic decline in the Peninsula in the early seventeenth century, the priesthood became a safety valve for many Spanish youth who detested manual labor. In 1624 a bishop lamented: “Some say that religion has now become a way to gain a living, and many become religious just as they would enter any other occupation” (Defourneaux 1970, 107).
And this relationship—founded on the art of dominating the indio spirit—I propose to Cockﬁghts and Engkantos 33 analyze using the splendid phrase the friars themselves used to describe their mission, which to them was a conquista espiritual. 2 Despite the absence of conventional historical evidence, it can be argued that the circumstances of an imperial conquest led by a priestly caste impressed upon the natives a veritable “spiritual invasion,” a massive intrusion of Hispanic spirit-beings into the islands.
No longer were foreigners to be relegated to the social and spatial fringes of colonial society. No longer were they prey to the native’s wrath, despite the episodic mor- A Clash of Spirits 31 tality from cholera epidemics that occurred throughout the nineteenth century. Consistent with the structural changes at the level of empire, the native interpretation of changing colonial realities led to intensiﬁed commercial relations and, through networks of intermediaries, encouraged further export-crop production in the countryside.
Clash of Spirits: The History of Power and Sugar Planter Hegemony on a Visayan Island by Filomeno V. Aguilar Jr.