By B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)
In the prior five years there was a massive raise of facts that the ion channels activated via mechanical strength are universal to a wide selection of telephone forms. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels shape a small share of the entire channel inhabitants. they're now present in greater than 30 mobilephone forms from E. coli, yeast, to plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells, the place they ensue in almost all kinds of cells from bone to gentle muscle, in addition to neurons. nearly all of MS channels are permeable to monovalent cations and are a little bit selective for ok+ over Na +. How 2 ever, there are numerous reviews of anion-selective MS channels, MS Ca + channels, and MS channels with huge conductances that don't dis criminate markedly among cations and anions. lately B. Hille has postulated attainable evolutionary relationships among various kinds of ion channels, with mechanosensitive channels predating even the eukaryotes. voltage-gated channel forms originate with the stem eukaryotes, as deduced from the presence of voltage-gated ok+ 2 and Ca + channels in protozoa, algae, or better crops. Agonist-gated chan nels in addition to voltage-gated Na + channels look with the earliest metazoan animals, as deduced from the presence of Na + spikes and quickly chemical synapses in cnidaria (coelenterates), ctenophores, and all larger animals.
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Extra info for Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems
However, increasing turgor pressure does appear to cause membrane thinning in giant algae at the same time cell expansion is occurring (Coster et al. 1977). The correlation of membrane area expansion and membrane thinning is consistent with a constant volume membrane that is being stretched. The method for assessing the thickness of a membrane assumes that biological membranes act as parallel-plate capacitors (Cole 1962). If the voltage across the membrane/capacitor, applied as short pulses, is steadily increased, the voltage at which dielectric breakdown (current flow across the capacitor) will occur depends on the thickness of the capacitor.
2) A powerful prediction of this model for the structure of an MS channel is that M can be directly calculated from the slope of the Boltzman relation [Eq. (6)]. In practice, however, there appear to be several obstacles to application of this model to analysis of MS channel gating. First, the actual tension on the channel and thus, the calculated value of M, is difficult to determine. Membrane tension is very dependent on geometry of a membrane patch, which can change during recordings of MS channel currents (Sachs 1989).
Kinetic analysis of single channel recordings of MS channels reveal only a limited number of closed and open states with very rapid transitions between states (Guharay and Sachs 1984; Cooper et al. 1986; Sigurdson et al. 1987). e. Gustin 26 MS channel and a linear Hookean spring and, most importantly, the derivation of free energy density (aGA ) from the integration of a linear equation [as in Eq. (3)] describing channel strain (MIA). Model 3, proposed by Howard et al. (1988), predicts that the MS channel open probability is an exponential function of the membrane tension.
Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems by B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)