By J. Wilczynski
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Extra info for Comparative Industrial Relations: Ideologies, institutions, practices and problems under different social systems with special reference to socialist planned economies
7. The natural increase has settled at fairly low levels, especially in the CMEA countries owing to declining birth rates. 1 to 14. 8). 56 The projected growth of population in the European socialist countries over the period 19802000 is only 16 per cent and in the socialist bloc as a whole (Cuba and the Asian socialist countries included) it is 25 per cent. This compares with 17 per cent in the developed capitalist countries as a whole and 63 per cent in the Third World. 57 The degree of the labour shortage in the socialist countries is indicated by the following examples (from the late 1970s).
42 But of greater concern are the deficiency-of-demand and structural-maladjustment causes of unemployment. Up to the early 1970s, it had been widely believed that insufficient spending caused by inadequate monetary and fiscal policies was at the root of the problem. But since that time it appears that rapid technological change and lack of or faulty manpower planning have been basically responsible (see Chapter 6C). Total open registered unemployment in the non-socialist world stood at 46m in 1960, 67m in 1973 and by 1990 it is predicted it will reach 105m, or 4.
2) Ensuring women's equality of working opportunity and remuneration. (3) Safeguarding women's interests associated with child-bearing, child-care and family responsibilities (maternity leave, facilities for working mothers, exemption from night work). The legislative measures along these lines are, on the whole, more comprehensive and systematically applied in the socialist countries than either in the West or the Third World. But in fact there are now two views on the need for special protection of female workers.
Comparative Industrial Relations: Ideologies, institutions, practices and problems under different social systems with special reference to socialist planned economies by J. Wilczynski