By Tao He
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As seen in the SEM photos, the increase in the pore size is followed by an increase in the porosity at the skin layer. 3 Average pore radius (R) at the bore side. 6wt%. 6 shows a combined picture of the influence of the bore liquid composition on the gas, water and copper permeability. The ratios between all fluxes are given with respect to the membrane prepared using a bore liquid NMP concentration of 75wt%. The copper, gas and water permeation decrease when the solvent content in the bore liquid decreases.
4 Stress-tensile test Mechanical stress-strain experiments were performed on a Zwick Tensile Machine (Materialprufung Z020) made in Germany. Pre-dried SPES films were initially cut into standard dumb-bell test pieces. And then two ends of the film were clasped onto the tensile machine. 25N, was pre-applied to avoid contribution of the force acting on flattening the crumbled films. 2. The settings of the casting knives were 200 µm and 250 µm respectively, resulting in films with a coating thickness of 50 µm and a sublayer thickness of 200 µm.
147 (1998) 109-116.  X. J. Yang, A. G. Fane, J. Bi, and H. J. Griesser, Stabilization of supported liquid membranes by plasma polymerization surface coating, J. , 168 (2000) 29-37.  M. C. Wijers, M. Jin, M. Wessling, and H. Strathmann, Supported liquid membranes modification with sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone): permeability, selectivity and stability, J. , 147 (1998) 117130.  G. H. Koops, J. A. M. Nolten, M. H. V. Mulder, and C. A. Smolders, Integrally skinned polysulfone hollow fiber membranes for pervaporation, J.
Composite hollow fiber membranes for ion separation and remo by Tao He