Computers, Chess and Long-Range Planning by M. M. Botvinnik (auth.) PDF

By M. M. Botvinnik (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0387900128

ISBN-13: 9780387900124

ISBN-10: 1468462458

ISBN-13: 9781468462456

Mihail Moiseevich Botvinnik is an electric engineer via career; in the course of international warfare II he headed a high-tension laboratory within the Urals and used to be adorned via the USSR for his accomplishments. at the present, he's the pinnacle of the alternating-current computing device laboratory on the Moscow Institute of strength Engineering. he's additionally a world-renowned chess participant. He was once born in 1911, and via 1935 had turn into a Grandmaster of Soviet chess. In 1948 he gained the area chess championship and held the name until eventually 1963 (except for a two-year break). His chess type has been characterised as deep, aim, critical, and brave. during this ebook, the standard of his considering is printed in his research of the fundamental idea methods of grasp chess gamers, and his relief of those procedures to mathematical shape. This formalization of notion methods is a contribution to technological know-how at 3 degrees: on the fast point, it offers a foundation for a working laptop or computer software that turns out more likely to achieve enjoying chess; on the center point, game-playing courses support us to review and rationalize the procedures of making plans and decision-making; and, on the maximum point, the research of the brain in motion, as within the video game of chess, ends up in an knowing of human inspiration and of the human psyche.

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Sample text

QhS are refuted. Black moves according to the map, and Formula (9') produces a negative result. (9) 1: Ktg3 - e4 According to the map, Black replies with 1. de. As in the cases (1) - (8), Formula (9') testifies against the move 1. Kte4. (10) 1. Ktg3 - f5 The map recommends 1... gf. Here White has a new value: QeS - jKg7·0(3)-I (eS)-I (g3)·1 (g7}(I-I) So, 1. Qg3. In accordance with the map, Black may reply by 2 ... Kh8. White may now continue with 3. Qg8, 3. Qg7, 3. Qd6, 3. Qc7. All of these will be terminated by Formula (9') as unsatisfactory after the obvious answers by Black, according to the map.

Code for the moves of the Queen from square e7. We need not include other attacks, since the problem is not complex; we may now construct and analyze the map. It is worthwhile, however, to remember that the subsidiary task that we have just abandoned is absolutely necessary, and that it forms a single whole with the construction and analysis of the map (see p. 00, where the map for three half-moves is given). How the value of White's pieces has grown, in both quantity and quality! Black, on the other hand, has merely refined his values.

Nor does carrying the play to two half-moves bring in anything new. 44 Botvinnik It is necessary to go further and construct the map for three half-moves, where the pieces will be displaced by two moves. This is a more difficult task than to displace them by one move. It is of interest, therefore, to see how we go about the discovery of the possible moves. Let us begin with the White Queen. To determine the possible captures by the White Queen in two moves, we must construct the code of moves of the Queen on the board for one move from eS, and then the codes of Queen moves from all the squares containing enemy pieces.

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