By H.S. Thomsen
In 1994 the ecu Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) organize a committee to think about the protection of the distinction media utilized in radiology departments. for the reason that then, the committee has wondered individuals, reviewed the literature, proposed directions, and mentioned those proposals with contributors on the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This publication represents the result of this difficult paintings. It includes all the agreed directions, up-to-date while worthwhile, and thereby comprehensively covers the various diversified issues of safety with regards to the various distinction media: barium distinction media, iodinated distinction media, MR distinction media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound distinction media. The prevention and remedy of either acute and not on time non-renal opposed reactions in addition to the renal adversarial reactions are lined intimately. The inclusion of all of the ESUR guidance inside one ebook will supply a useful, distinct and exceptional resource.
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Extra info for Contrast Media in Ultrasonography Basic Principles and Clinical Applications
16a–d. Artefacts from microbubble-based agents. Blooming artefact consisting in the presence of colour signal outside the vessels. Baseline colour Doppler US (a,b) of the right kidney. The renal parenchymal vessels are identiﬁed. After microbubble-based agents injection (c,d) colour signal becomes diffuse and identiﬁed outside the renal vessels a b Fig. 17a,b. Artefacts from microbubble-based agents. Blooming artefact consisting in the presence of colour signal outside the vessels. Baseline colour Doppler US (a) of the right carotid bulb.
2000) the shell parameters for phospholipid monolayers are of the same order of magnitude as those obtained for albumin shells. However, results reported by Postema et al. (2003) suggest that phospholipidscoated microbubbles behaviour is closer to that of a free bubble. Further controlled experiments are required to resolve this discrepancy. It is undoubtedly true, however, that the material microstructure is different for surfactants and polymers. A phospholipid monolayer for example, consists of a single layer of molecules bound together by secondary (Van de Waals) bonds.
Clutter may be reduced by using specific filters, harmonic power Doppler (Chap. 4) or by contrast-specific modes as three stage multi-pulse contrast agent detection (Frinking et al. 1998; Kirkhorn et al. 2001). The principle of this multipulse technique is that the scattering properties are modified if microbubbles are insonated at high acoustic power while remaining unchanged at low acoustic power. The first stage of the pulsing sequence is to use low acoustic power pulses to obtain high resolution reference images without altering the agents; the second stage is to use high acoustic power, called the release burst, to modify the agent; and the third stage is to detect the changes using low acoustic power.
Contrast Media in Ultrasonography Basic Principles and Clinical Applications by H.S. Thomsen