Controlled Environment - download pdf or read online

By Durkee, John B.

ISBN-10: 0080448887

ISBN-13: 9780080448886

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Molecules at a boundary have fewer neighbors than interior molecules. They exist in a higher state of energy. Minimization of solvent energy, at a given temperature and pressure, means minimization of the number of surface molecules. In other words, the thermodynamic state of minimum energy requires a minimum of surface area — the surface with the “smoothest” curvature. So, solvents with high levels of intermolecular forces have high values surface tension — what’s not wanted in cleaning operations.

USP PW and WFI are defined by Section <1231> of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). To meet the concerns of chlorine and microbial contamination, PW must meet the EPA NPDWR and also Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and electrical conductivity specifications. The conductivity spec is lower than a single-pass RO but not as low as DI. WFI is the same as PW with an additional microbial endotoxin specification. Too many manufacturing cleaning operations use tap water. It is important to keep in mind that the requirements and goals of municipalities and manufacturers differ.

This column is about why that is so. A TIME FOR SIMPLICITY Briefly, one needs intermolecular forces to dissolve soils, and intermolecular forces produce surface tension forces. THE SCIENCE OF SOLUBILITY Ideas of Professor Joel Henry Hildebrand (1881-1983, University of California, Berkeley), and the work derived from them, allowed development of a useful system of solubility characterization. Hildebrand’s basic idea was that dissolution (or solubility) occurs when there is an energy match within a fluid.

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Controlled Environment by Durkee, John B.

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