By Hiroshi Okumura (auth.)
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These too, therefore, had to expand in capacity and the list of private universities became very long. We may then classify the universities in contemporary Japan in the following groups: (1) Tokyo University, (2) Kyoto University, (3) Hitotsubashi-TIT, (4) major state universities, (5) other national and municipal universities, (6) Keio and Waseda Universities, and (7) other xlii Introduction private universities. (1) and (2) are ex-imperial universities in Tokyo and Kyoto respectively. In (3) Hitotsubashi is the former college of commerce in Tokyo, now specializing in economics and other social sciences, while TIT (Tokyo Institute of Technology) is the former college of technology in Tokyo.
Under the mutual holding regime the institutional stable shareholders of course bought A’s new shares to keep its proportion, so that the rush always created a big excess demand for the shares, producing a high price. Thus the news and information (suggested by the big four to the customers by various means) were confirmed. Repeating the same story for many cases of new issues, customers came to believe rationally and confidently that because of their economic success Japanese companies’ share prices would be higher and higher in the future.
This composition is stable over a considerably long period, so that companies which have a similar composition may trust each other. The trust is even more unshakable when they belong to Introduction xliii the same enterprise group. In any case, the school tie is very strong in Japan. The 1992 distribution of executives of the six enterprise groups according to the educational backgrounds may be summarised as in Table 3. Column (A) gives the percentages of those graduates from the first class state universities, while (B) gives the percentage from the first-class state or private universities.
Corporate Capitalism in Japan by Hiroshi Okumura (auth.)