By Geert H Hofstede; Gert Jan Hofstede; Michael Minkov
Pt. 1. the concept that of tradition -- pt. 2. Dimensions of nationwide cultures -- pt. three. Cultures in organisations -- pt. four. Implications
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On the international point, activity is governed via a suite of organisations together with giants resembling the IOC (Olympics), FIFA (soccer), and the IAAF (athletics) in addition to carrying minnows similar to the area Armsport Federation (armwrestling). lots of these bodies were surrounded through controversy in the course of their histories, after having to regulate to the realities of industrial activity.
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Gender also plays a role in we-they dynamics, as we might expect in a species in which gender roles have historically been very different regarding crossing group boundaries. Women have usually come into other groups as young adults, to live as loyal members of the new group. Men have frequently come to new groups to dominate or to ﬁght them. 14 Of course, this depends on which faces are thought of as out-group, and that in turn depends on exposure in infancy. In we-versus-they experiments, physiological measurements can be used alongside questionnaires to measure fear.
A major inspiration for his list was the work of the American psychologist Milton Rokeach (1973), who compared different groups in the American population on eighteen “terminal values” (nouns describing desirable end states, Studying Cultural Differences 41 such as equality) and eighteen “instrumental values” (adjectives describing ways to get there, such as honest). 18 He initially compared individuals and, through a statistical procedure (smallest space analysis), divided his values into ten dimensions.
Nevertheless, many nations do form historically developed wholes even if they consist of clearly different groups and even if they contain less integrated minorities. Within nations that have existed for some time there are strong forces toward further integration: (usually) one dominant national language, common mass media, a national education system, a national army, a national political system, national representation in sports events with a strong symbolic and emotional appeal, a national market for certain skills, products, and services.
Cultures and organizations : software of the mind : intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival by Geert H Hofstede; Gert Jan Hofstede; Michael Minkov