By Alex Marshall
The Caucasus is a strategically and economically very important sector in modern worldwide affairs. Western curiosity within the Caucasus has grown speedily when you consider that 1991, fuelled by way of the admixture of oil politics, nice energy contention, ethnic separatism and terrorism that characterizes the area. in spite of the fact that, formerly there was little figuring out of ways those matters got here to imagine the significance they've got at the present time. This publication argues that realizing the Soviet legacy within the zone is necessary to analysing either the hot states of the Transcaucasus and the self sustaining territories of the North Caucasus. It examines the impression of Soviet rule at the Caucasus, focusing particularly at the interval from 1917 to 1955. vital questions lined contain how the Soviet Union created ‘nations’ out of the varied peoples of the North Caucasus; the genuine nature of the 1917 revolution; the position and results of pressured migration within the area; how over the years the constituent nationalities of the area got here to re-define themselves; and the way Islamic radicalism got here to imagine the significance it keeps to carry this present day. A cauldron of struggle, revolution, and international interventions - from the British and Ottoman Turks to the oil-hungry armies of Hitler’s 3rd Reich - the Caucasus and the rules and actors it produced (not least Stalin, Sergo Ordzhonikidze and Anastas Mikoyan) both formed the Soviet scan within the 20th century and seem set to proceed to form the geopolitics of the twenty-first. Making extraordinary use of memoirs, data and released resources, this e-book is a useful reduction for students, political analysts and reporters alike to realizing the most vital borderlands of the fashionable international.
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Additional info for The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule
In practice, serving 24 The North Caucasus military officers often owned considerably larger amounts of real estate, with Colonel Tsiklaurov owning 450 desiatins of land in Lesser Kabarda during the 1880s, Colonel Eristov 700 desiatins and General Tumanov 1,500 desiatins. 49 The long war against Shamil, and the losses it brought about through death and migration, may therefore have temporarily relieved earlier demographic pressures within the local population, but the post-war settlement also created new sources of violent discontent.
This process may have been further facilitated by the fact that Russian rule itself had the contradictory effect of actually stabilizing and institutionalizing the Muslim clergy. As the Russian ethnographer S. G. 78 Even within this new but still inherently conservative social class, however, there still raged a theological division over acceptance (or rejection) of the local Russian presence. The Naqshbandiya-Khalidiyya sect of Sufi Islam, which had played such a central role in local resistance to the Russian presence under Shamil, split after The North Caucasus 33 1859 into two distinct factions.
T. Barnum even placed a live ‘Circassian Beauty’ on display at the American Museum in 1865. The Circassians in exile, however, remained not just a popular ethnographic curiosity to be exploited, but also a powerful hostile diaspora, one which would continue to raid the Russian border and provide irregular cavalry for Russia’s main enemy, the Ottoman Empire, particularly during the war of 1877–78. A visible legacy from this time of 20 The North Caucasus exile can still be seen today in the Circassian bodyguard of the royal house of Jordan, a unit which, even in their new desert environment, elected to retain their traditional ‘Cossack’ style of dress (the Cossacks, as has been noted, having largely adopted their own uniform from that of their Muslim opponents).
The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule by Alex Marshall